Friday, August 31, 2007




We have to-day, for our reference, different Ramayanas in various languages and versions. Sri Rama Katha has been explained/ interpreted differently by each author.Valmiki Ramayana, Adhyatma Ramayana, Vasishta Ramayana, Tulasi Ramayana, Ananda Ramayana, Agasthya Ramayana, Kamba Ramayana, Kilipattu Ramayana are some of the well known versions.

Ramayana authored by Valmiki being Aadi Kavya. this epic forms as basis for all other subsequent versions.

Though Sage Valmiki is aware that Sri Rama as incarnation of Lord Vishnu, he picturised Sri Rama as a perfect human being with embodiment of Dharma. Perhaps Sage Valmiki would have thought that when a personality is directly described as God, he fails to be a model for human beings to imitate or follow.

Sage Veda Vyasa, a contemporary of Sage Valmiki, in his BRAHMANDA PURANAM has incorporated Sri Rama katha from Chapter 61 onwards. Here it is authored as conversation text form, between Lord Siva and Goddess Parvathi (As reported by Lord Brahma to Sage Narada). This Ramayana is named as Adhyatma Ramayana. We can find many differences in the above two Ramayanas, though deals with the same Rama Katha. Some of the differences are as explained below for the benefit of the readers: -

1. Sage Valmiki depicts Sri.Rama as an ideal man while admitting his divinity. Whereas Sage Vyasa present him as the Supreme being incarnate with the full remembrance of his divinity and the recognition of it by all wise men.

2, There is vast difference in their sizes, makes it incumbent for the latter to omit many elaborations, details of incidents, descriptions, etc. contained in the former. Valmiki Ramayana contains 7 kandas and consists of Twenty four thousand slokas.First letter after every thousand slokas is incorporated from Gayathri Mantra.. The latter version i.e Adhyatma Ramayana contain 6 kandas with 3653 slokas.

3. In Valmiki, Sri.Rama is born as ordinay human infant. But Adhyatma presents him at birth as the four handed Lord Maha Vishnu with all divine emblems.

4. In the former version, in the Sage Viswamithra episode, Sage Vasishta does not reveal Sri.Rama’s divinity to King Dasaratha, whereas in latter version Sri. Rama’s divinity is revealed.

5.Ahalya wife of Sage Gautama is in invisible form in the Valmiki Ramayana, whereas in the latter she has been depicted in the rock form.

6. In the Ayodhya Kanda of Adhyatma Ramayana the section opens with a visit of Sage Narada to Sri. Rama to remind him of the purpose of his incarnation, which Sri. Rama acknowledges. All this incidents are not in Valmiki.

7. In the Adhyatma , banishment of Sri. Rama is accomplished by the Devas through Goddess Saraswathi, by possessing the two women i.e maid servant Manthara and Kaikeyi. In Valmiki this incident is explained as a simple court intrigue.

8. Sage Valmiki’s evil past explained in detail in Adhyatma, but not in the other.

9.In Adhyatma, Lakshmana requests Rama to instruct him on the means of attaining Salvation. Rama also gives him an elaborate discourse on Jnana and Bhakti, conveying the quintessence of Vedanta. This is not there in Valmiki Text.

10. According to Adhyatma Ravana is aware of the fact that Sri. Rama in human form is Lord Vishnu incarnated to kill him. Ravana is also aware of the fact that destruction at Sri. Rama’s hand is easier way of gaining salvation than through spiritual practices.

11.In Adhyatma - unknown to Lakshmana, Rama informs Sita that Ravana will be coming to abduct her, and that therefore he is handing her over to the Fire deity Agni for safe custody, till he takes her back again. In her place Maya Sita is left in Asrama, and it is this illusory Sita that Ravana abducts. This is unknown in the Valmiki.

12. In Valmiki, it is Kabandha who advises Sri. Rama to make friends with Sugreeva and give details about the place of his residence. Where as in Adhyatma it is ascetic Sabari who first tells Rama about Sugreeva and informs him that Sita is confined in Ravana’s palace.

13. After the death of Vali it is Hanuman who consoles Tara in Adhyatma Ramayana. Where as in Valmiki Sri. Rama gives her an elaborate advice of philosophy of Vedanta and the practice of devotion, besides consoling her.

14. In Adhyatma while Rama is staying at Mount Pravarshana after the coronation of Sugreeva, he gives an elaborate discourse to Lakshmana on the ritualistic worship of Lord Maha Vishnu ( i.e Himself), thus revealing his identity with the Supreme Being openly.

15.Swayamprabha comes to meet Rama and praises Him, identifying him as Supreme Being. According to the advice of Rama she goes to Badari to attain Mukthi.. This episode is absent in Valmiki.

16.Sampaathi gives an elaborate discourse to the monkeys who meet him He quotesSage Chandramas, while telling about the divinity of Sri. Rama. This incident is available in Adhyatma only.

17. Conspicuous addition in the Adhyatma is Rama’s installation of the Sivalinga in Rameswara, before the construction of Sethu for the success of the enterprise. Rama also declare about the merit of Pilgrimage to Rameswara and Sethu Bandha here. These elaborations are not available in Valmiki.

18.Sri Rama is well aware of his divinity during the Naga pasa missile episode and Garuda’s arrival to release them. In Valmiki, Rama is not aware of his divinity till the end when Brahma imparts that knowledge to him.

19, Kalanemi obstruct Hanuman while he is on his way to bring Mritasanjivani, a herb that can revive one who is almost dead. This incident is absent in Valmiki.

20.Narada praises Rama after the death of Kumbakarna in Adhyatma . This is absent in Valmiki.

21.Killing of Maya Sita by Indrajit and illusion created thereon by black magic is available in Valmiki but not in Adhyatma

22. Before going to battle Ravana , for gaining invincibility in battle, begins fire rite, as per the advice of his guru Sukra. This rite is blocked and stopped by the monkeys. These incidents are absent in Valmiki Ramayana.

23.Rama cut down the heads of Ravana repeatedly, but could not kill him. Vibhishana informs Rama that Ravana has got amrita deposited in his umbilicus and that until it is removed he cannot be killed. This is available in Adhyatma Ramayana. But in Valmiki Ramayana as per the advice of Sage Agasthya Rama Chant Adhithya Hrudaya and worship Lord Soorya to kill Ravana.

24.According to Adhyatma on the death of Ravana, his spirit , having luminosity of lighting enters into Rama and attains salvation. An example for vidvesha Bhakthi.These explanation find no place in Valmiki.

25. After the death of Ravana Sita’s fire ordeal is only to replace the Maya Sita by Rama. The whole event is given the appearance of a real ordeal in Valmiki.

26. In Adhyatma Ramayana every one praises and chant the hymn on Rama
starting from Vamadeva, Valmiki, Bhardwaja, Narada, Viradha, Sarabanga, Sutikshna,Agasthya, Viswamitra, Vasishta, Jatayu, Kabhanda, Sabari, Swayamprabha, Parasurama, Vibhishana, Hanuman etc. This is absent in Valmiki.

Subham Bhavathu

This page is powered by Blogger. Isn't yours?