Friday, December 02, 2016

 

List of  0ld  Agraharams  in  Palakkad 


  1. Adityapuram
  1. Alampallam
  1. Ambikapuram
  1. Anicode
  1. Avinjipadam
  1. Ayakaad
  1. Ayalur
  1. Ayilam
  1. Ayilur
  1. Ayyapankavu
 11.  Chandrasekharapuram
12.  Chathapuram
13.  Chembai
14.  Chittoor (Lankeswaram)
15.  Chittoor (Thekke Gramam)
16.  Chittoor (Vadakke Gramam)
17.  Chokkanathapuram
 18.  Elamblassery
19.  Elappulli
20.  Ennappadam
21.  Erumayur
 22.  Govindarajapuram
 23.  Kalpathi (Old)
24.  Kalpathi (New)
25.  Kallur
26.  Kannambra  ?
27.  Kanniampuram
28.  Karimpuzha
29.  Karimassery
30.  Kavassery Mullakkal Gramam
31.  Kavassery Nellithara Gramam
32.  Kavassery Iswara Pattar Gramam
33.  Kavassery Ottupuari Gramam
34.  Kavassery  Kongalakode Gramam
35.  Kavassery  Nanu Pattar Gramam
36.  Kizhakkancheri
37.  Kodumbu
38.  Koduvayur
    
  1. Kollancode Perumalkoil gramam
  1. Kollancode Pudugramam
  1. Kollancode  Kizhakkegramam
  1. Kongad
  1. Koottalai
  1. Kottayi near Chembai
  1. Kozhimuttam
  1. Kozhindirapalli
  1. Koodallur
  1. Kumarapuram
  1. Kunnisseri
  1. Kuzhalmannam
 
  1. Lakshminarayanapuram
 
  1. Manappadam
  1. Manjapra Periya Gramam
  1. Manjapra Chinna Gramam
  1. Mathur (Vadakke gramam)
  1. Mathur (Thekke gramam)
  1. Mangalam (Thekke Gramam)
  1. Mangalam (Vadakke Gramam)
  1. Manjeri
  1. Mekanamkulam
  1. Melarcode Thekke gramam
  1. Melarcode Vadakke gramam
  1. Melarcode  Chathacode
 
  1. Nelleppalli
  1. Nellisseri
  1. Nemmara (Kannimangalam)
  1. Nemmara (Krishnapuram)
  1. Nemmara (puthugramam)
  1. Nemmara (pazhayagramam)
  1. Nochur
  1. Nurani
 
  1. Padur Thekke Gramam
  1. Padur Patinjare Gramam
  1. Pallassana (Kizhakke gramam)
  1. Pallassana (Merke gramam)
  1. Pallavur
  1. Pallipuram
  1. Pallanchathanur
  1. Panamgattiri
  1. Parakulam (Kizhakke Gramam)
  1. Parakulam (Patinjare Gramam)
  1. Payyalur
  1. Pazhampalacode
  1. Perumkulam Thekke Gramam
  1. Perumkulam Varadarajapermal Theru
  1. Peruvamba Kizhakke Gramam
  1. Peruvamba Valeswaram Gramam
  1. Pirayiri
  1. Puducode (Kizhakke Gramam)
  1. Puducode (Thekke Gramam)
  1. Puthucode (Merke Gramam)
  1. Puducode (Vadakke Gramam
 
  1. Ramanathapuram
  1. Rishinaradamangalam
 
  1. Sekharipuram
 
  1. Tharakad
  1. Thathamangalam (Kizhakke gramam)
  1. Thathamangalam (Merke gramam)
  1. Thathamangalam (Thekke gramam)
100.   Thenkurissi
101.   Thennilapuram
102.   Thirunellai
103.   Thondukulam
104.   Thrithamarai
 105.   Vadakkanthara
106.   Vadakkancheri
107.   Vadavannur
108.   Vandazhi
109.   Vellinezhi
110.   Vengasseri
111.   Venkateswarapuram
112.   Vettaikkorumakankavu
113.   Vilayannur
114.   Vydianathapuram
   





         




























Sunday, November 02, 2014

 

SANDHYA UPASANA

                                                           
The importance of Sandhya Upasana and the meaning relating to the Krishna Yajurveda Sandhya Vandana - Mantras therein.
Our Vedas propagate Santana Dharma (code of righteous conduct). They guide us to attain knowledge of the Self. Vedas show the way  to attain the desired objectives  and  for  removal   of  all  our  Sins  and  impediments  in  life.  They also show the way to know the   Real Truth which is beyond our perceptions and inferences. Dharma Bodha is the main ingredient that differentiates human beings from animals.  It is good for us to see that animal within us dies so that man within us lives.  It is well known that Vedas are   pramanam for   all our doubts. ( Veda  Akhilo Dharma  Moolam).Righteous  code  of conduct  as  prescribed  in vedas  is  Dharma.  Those who protect vedas will certainly get divine blessings.  Vedic injunctions are permanent and cannot be altered. (Dharmo Rakshati Rakhitah).
Vedas are treasure trove of Hindu religion; tradition and culture containing code of righteous conduct. They are eternal commands for shaping man’s good conduct and for developing impeccable character.  Smrithi has divided Dharma into 6 parts. They are Varna Dharma Ashrama Dharma, Varnasrama Dharma, Guna dharma, Nimitha Dharma and day to day Sadharana Dharma.
Ahimsa-Truthfulness-Non-stealing- Soucham-Control of mind- all come under normal Sadharana Dharma. According to Varna Dharma  the  daily  six routine duties  are  Sandhya,Japam, Homam,Devatha Poojanam,Adhithyam and  Vaiswadevam. The  duties ( karmas)  under the  head  of  Vedas are  classified  as  follows:-  NITHYAM- NAIMITHIKAM  - KAMYAM  AND  PRATHISHIDHAM.
Nithyakarma:- by  performing   this  no special  punya ( moral  good) is  acquired-But  by  not performing  the same  papas ( sins) are accrued.
Naimithikam: - Karma to be performed because of special occasions like Tharpanam during Eclipse etc.
Kamyam: - This is performed to obtain the desired result. Like invoking Lord Varuna in the sacrifice to get rain.
Nishidham: - Such karmas which should not be followed or performed.
By  performing  daily  karmas with  sradha and  devotion  one can  obtain Chitha  Sudhi  which  is  a  preliminary  requirement   to  progress  further  in  our  life.
Sandhya is the best time to perform Dhyana or meditation. The twilight time between the day and night is called Sandhya. Sandhya  is  also called  as  Sakthi from which  entire  world  has  come  into existence and  is beyond  Maya and  formed  out of  three tatwas  i.e.  Jeeva-Eswara- and Nature.  Sandhya  Upasana  is a vaidheeka  karma by which  one  pray the Supreme Lord  to  forgive  us   and to  remove  all  our  sins. Tejas is a derivative of Jnanam. Similarly water is the derivative of worship.  While  performing  Sandhya  Upasana we  offer  water  as  worship to  the Supreme  Lord and  by  doing  that  we  surrender  ourselves   to  Him in  totality. Long life ; Knowledge; Fame; Name; and  Brahma Tejas  can be  acquired  by  performing  Daily  Sandhya  with  Sradha  and  devotion. Sandhya  Anushtanam  is  a must  daily duty  and  the  real  strength  of  the  Brahmanism  is  in the  this  worship. Earlier days   ARGHYAM- GAYATHRI JAPAM- AND DHYANAM (MEDITATION) were the main ingredients for all followers of Veda.  But on  later stages different methods came into existence.
To  mention  a  few additions that  came  into existence  are    Jalaprathana  Mantra,  Devatha  Tharpanam, Slokas  from  puranas, Siva Vishnu  and  Yama Vandanams etc. Upasthana Mantras also vary from one Veda Shaka to another.  Whatever it may be the ultimate aim is to acquire Chitha Sudhi.   By  this  one  can   get  rid  of  one’s  sins and  this  lead  to  Jnanam  which  in turn leads  to Moksha  in the  end.
In Sandhya  Upasana a  person who  knows that the sun is the  same  as the  Supreme Brahman meditates  on the  sun  and perform  circumambulation  enjoys  all happiness. He who  knows  this  secret of    identity   that  he  himself  is  Brahman, attains  Brahman. Sandhya   means the time when day and night meet and vandanam means thanks giving   to the Lord Supreme. Performing of Madhyahnikam is an orthodox derivation.
The first and foremost function in the Sandhya upasana is Achamanam.  They  are  of  three types  ( Sruti – Smrithi-  Purana) Sruti  achamanam is  mentioned in  the  Taittareeya Aranyaka- where it is said that the  following  mantra “ Vidhyudasi Vidhya  may Papmanam ritaat  sathya  Mupaimi” is chanted and water is touched.  Meaning   of this rik is as follows: - You are lightening. Remove my sins.  Through truth I attain unto Truth. After washing  hands -Three time  achamanam  is  followed  by  two time  lips wash and  again after  washing  of palm  head,eyes,ears,nose,heart  etc.  are touched (This system is followed during Brahma Yagna).  Smrithi Achamanam is of two types. Srauta and Smartha.  In srauta,   achamanam is  followed by  recitation  of  three pada  Gayathri  then  21 parts  of  the  body  are touched. While  performing  mantras  are  recited- nine ablingas  by apohista mantra seven  vyakruthees-Three pada  Gayathri and ending  with  Om  apo jyotheerasa:  Amrutam Brahma. In Smartha  achamanam laid  down  by  Manu/Yajnavalkya  and  others-achamanam  is  performed  two times  then  lips  are washed twice and then  cleaning palm,  mouth and other sensory organs are touched. In Purana  achamanam-Water  is  sipped  thrice and  several  parts  of  body  touched. Each single operation being accompanies by repetitive   of a distinctive names or Lord Vishnu or Lord Siva. (practice differ from place to place).
After Lord Ganapathy Dhyanam, pranayama is done by mentally reciting the mantra. Sankalpa – determination  with  mental  resolve  to  perform the  Sandhya  upasana  is  followed  thereafter.( In some places  Jala Prarthana “ Apo   va  idagum Sarvam…”mantra is chanted that  too  only  for  the  morning  Sandhya).
MARJANA MANTRA: - It is well known that You the deities of water are the cause of great happiness. Please nourish us with the divine vision which brings glory and loveliness. Please make us worthy of imbibing the auspicious bliss even as a mother feeds her children. We approach you with eagerness for that bliss, to distribute, which you have taken a form and are shining. Bestow on us the boon of a next life sanctified by knowledge.
PRAASANAMANTRA: - They are three in numbers for each time zone. (Morning   Sun God- After noon Holy water and in the evening Lord Agni).  May Sun /Agni’/Varuna  and  the  God  of  anger and  the Lords presiding  over  anger; save me from the sins  caused by  anger. Whatever sins I have committed; by mind, speech, hands, feet, belly, and the sensual organ may the Lord of the departed night/day remove all that and whatever other sins that may be in me. I sacrifice in the Self, illuminous light, the eternal first cause. As an  emblem  of  such  sacrifice, I pour down this  consecrated water as  libation in my mouth , which  shall be  the  sacrificial fire. May  this sacrifice of mine become well offered.( Here  water  represents the  sinner and  all his  sins and  pouring down of water  typifies the  act  of  sacrifice)
It is said in the vedas that energy of the sun passes on to Agni in the evening.  Hence the substitution of Agni Lord for Surya in the evening Sandhya Upasana
In  Madhyahnikam  Sandhya  Upasana  praasana mantra  meaning  is  as  follows:-May the  waters purity  the  earth by pouring  down rain.  May the earth thus purified make me pure.  May  the waters purify  my spiritual preceptor  and  may the  Veda as taught  by  him purify me. Whatever  impure food  I may have taken, whatever  I may have  received  as  gift from the  unworthy, may  the  waters  destroy all that sins and purify me; and for  this purpose, I pour  this sanctified water  as  libation down my mouth  as  sacrifice.
Then  come  second  Marjanam (Punarmarjanam):- I make obeisance  to the Supreme Person who  supports, rules and  sustains all the worlds, who is ever  victorious  and  who has taken  the  form of  Hayagreeva the  repository of all knowledge. May He make our faces and other organs fragrant. May He protect our lives. (the remaining   meaning  - as stated in the   first Marjanam).
The performer  after attaining  his  outer  and  inner purification then offer Arghyam ( offering  water respectfully  to the  Supreme  Lord). The sanctified – water-consecrated-  by   chanting  of Gayathri  mantra  and thrown upwards with both hands ; becoming  thunderbolts, hurl the evil spirits to an island called  Aruna ;  where dwells  the evil spirits called  Mandehas. (By this act entire world is protected) 
Meaning of Gayathri Mantra: We meditate on the adorable light of the supreme creator of the universe. May He (existing in our mind in the form of light) guide our intellects in the pursuit of the Truth.
Prayaschitha Arghyam is followed   for not offering   the arghyam on time.
Aikyanusandhanam:  Asavadityo Brahma Brahmmaeva Ahamasmi. Means:-The Sun is Brahman and I too am Brahman.
Next  comes Tharpanam  to  Navagraha and  Dwadasa names  of  Vishnu, This  Tharpanam is considered  as Puranic  additions and no reference  is made  to them  in the  Taittareeya Aranyaka (  as opined  by  learned people) Hence  it  is  stated  that  these  additions  are inconsistent with the spirit of   the  Vedic Sandhya- which is  a  prayer  directed  to theone  alone “ without  a second.
(Here  ends  the  first  part  of  the Upasana called  Sandhya . The  second  part is called  Japam.)
It  is  reported  by  learned  people  that   popularly  known  as  Three pada Gayathri  has  got  a turiya ( Fourth)  pada  also. This  should be  revealed only to the one who is properly initiated.  Meaning  of  this  pada  “PARORAJASE  ASAVADOM” -  He who is beyond  all  phenomenon, He is  Bliss , He is eternal  OM. This fourth pada is  hidden  in the  Vedas-Hence  not  visible. (  Mantra Drashta for the  turiya pada of the Gayathri  is  Vimala  Rishi- Chandas  is  Tureeyam and  Devatha  is  Paramatma.)
Gayathri Avahanam: May  the  Goddess Gayathri Devata-who grants  all  our desires come to us  to make  known to us  the eternal Lord, who is  revealed to us only  through the  scriptures. May  the  Gayathri  the mother  of all  the vedas reveal to us  the  eternal  Truth.
Devi Gayathri – you  are the source  of all spiritual strength . You  are  the power  that  drive away the evil  inclination  which  are  my enemies You  are conducing  to   a sound   mind which conduces to a  sound body. You are the light  of  the Gods; that  dispel  my  intellectual darkness and  illuminate my heart with  divine wisdom.  You are everything. You are  Eternal Truth that destroys  all  our sins.  You  are  the  pranava that reveals  to me  the  unknown, Come to me Oh! Goddess Gayathri and make me wise.
After  invocation of  Gayathri comes  enumeration of  the  four  principal  characteristics of the  Gayathri Rik. Mantra Drashta: (Rishi)- Chandas ( metre) –Devatha  ( praise  of the  Devatha  it  sings)- Viniyoga( The purpose  to which  the Rik is  applied)
For  Gayathri  Mantra consists of Pranava ( OM)-  Vyakruthees  ( Bhu: Bhuvaha: Swaha:) and Savithri mantra- which   already  existed . This  combination  was revealed  to  Sage Viswamitra who  in turn  gave  this to the  world. He  is   the  mantra  Drashta –Chandas  ( metre)   the  number  of  letters in the  Savithri mantra  equally  divided  into three parts of  eight  letters each and has  24  letters. Devatha for Gayathri is   Savithri- the  supreme Lord  Paramatma. Viniyoga: Prayer for sayujya  or  absorption through  knowledge  into  the  universal  soul. (  There are  Angannyasa and karannyasa that are followed by few, before    chanting  of  Gayathri mantra- elders  say that  these  are   of  tantric  origin).
After  completion of   Gayathri  Japa   Gayathri Upasthana  follows:-
The Goddess  Gayathri  resides  on  a  lofty peak on the  summit of mount  Meru in the  earth.  Oh! Goddess take  leave  from the persons who have  worshiped  you and who have  been blessed with your  grace  and  go back  to your  abode  as  comfortably  as  possible.
Morning  Upasthana  Mantra  Meaning:-  We sing  the  adorable  glory  of the  Sun God, who  sustains  all men by  causing  rain, which  glory is eternal and  most  worthy  of being  adored  with wonder.
The sun well knowing  the  inclinations of  several men directs them to their  several  pursuits, the  sun upholds both heaven and   earth. The sun observes  all creatures  and  their action  ( Karma Sakshi) without ever winking  to  this  eternal being . We  offer  the  oblation mixed  with  clarified  butter. Oh! Sun God  may  that man who through such sacrifice  offers oblation to you become  endowed with  wealth for he who is under your protection is not cut-off by  untimely  death. He is not vanquished by anybody and  sin has no hold on this man either  from near  or  from  far.
MADHYAHNIHA  UPSTHANA  MANTRA :- The Lord  Savita  daily appears  in the heaven. He  sustains Gods and Men ( He  confers  on men eternal Bliss  or  a mortal body once more  accordingly  as  they  acquit  themselves on earth) He comes  in golden chariot illuminating  all worlds. Adoring  the Sun  God  among  the  Gods, the loftier light  that rests  above  darkness or Sin, we attain most  excellent  light. His rays bearing him a lot, the God who knows the ways of all living beings; Surya, that all my look on Him adore Him- and become wise. The  wonderful collection of rays  has  risen ( the orb of light). This  orb is the eye of  the earth, air, and heaven. This orb has filled the earth ,air, and heaven with light everywhere. Sun God  is  the soul of all things that move and  all that move not. This  brilliant eye the  orb  of the Sun ,on whom as  lord  of  sacrifices; the devas depend for their oblations, rises  in the east. May we live  a hundred years  to see Him. May we live   plenty  through His grace. May we  be happy  in  His  presence for a hundred years. May we through His grace live secure in our homes. May we learn the  secrets  of  Vedic  theosophy from our  guru, and may we  gladly  impart  the same  to our  disciples. May we never meet the  reverses, and may we  long live  to see and adore  Him. May He who rises with resplendent glory from the midst  of  waters, out of the eastern ocean- the  bright eyed and all wise Surya, who shower all blessings on His worshipers,  may  make me  pure  in mind.
EVENING  UPASTHANA MANTRA:-  Hear  Oh!  Varuna  Lord this prayer of mine. Be gracious  unto me this day, longing  for your protection. I pray to you. ( This  prayer  rik is said  to have been taught  by  Sage  Viswamitra to Sunassephah, when he was  tied  to the  sacrificial post and about  to be  immortalized by  Harischandra to appease  the  wrath of  Lord  Varuna. This prayer saved him from death.)  Adoring you with prayer, I beg  long life  from you, the sacrificer does the same  with oblations he offers to you; therefore, Lord  Varuna without indifference  in this matter,  take  my prayer  into your kind consideration and do not cut off our lives. Oh! Lord Varuna, whatever law of yours we, as men, violate day after day,  forgives us  for those trespasses. ( The ethical consciousness  of human frailty and the appeal for mercy and forgiveness based on such consciousness find a beautiful  and simple earnest expression  in this  Rik). Oh! Lord  Varuna  whatever  offence we, as men, have committed against divine beings, whatever work of yours, we have neglected through  ignorance, do not destroy us, for such sins. Whatever  offence  is attributed to us by our  enemies as by gamblers at dice, whatever sins we may have really committed  and what we may  have done  without knowing , please destroy all those sins. Also pray that we shall become  beloved to You.
Then  follows  prayer  to Gods  residing  in  all directions. Kamam Akarsheet  Manyu Akarsheet  mantra  follows. This  a  shortened version of  the  actual  mantra  in the  Veda. Whatever  sins  I have  committed,  has been done by passion  or  anger and not by me- hence forgive me. Oh! Lord  I bow to you again  and  again.
Sandhya  prayer now closes  with  Abhivadanam  or salutation. The practice of reciting  at this  stage  a few slokas  from puranas and  slokas  in  praise  of  Lord  Vishnu, Siva, Yama  does not form integral part of  Vedic  Sandhya  Upasana.  After Raksha mantra  the whole ceremony is brought to a close by an internal purification of  the body by  Achamanam and dedicating the entire service gone through to  Para Brahman.
Summing  up: -  Sandhya  Upasana service  is simply a thanks giving and  a prayer to the Universal Lord. It begins with external purification of  body by sprinkling  of water by chanting  few hymns,  and internal  purification by sipping  few drops  of  consecrated water. We  pray all sins  committed during the preceding  12  hours be washed  away.
After  conducting purificatory functions, the worshiper feel that he is worthy of  approaching  the Supreme Lord and pays his  adorations to Him, by offering of water according to traditional  usage. He  looks at the  Sun Lord  and makes his offering.  His offerings are  really to the Paramatman,  the  nameless one. Sun is only  visible  symbol of God’s power and  glory. He praises with Vedic hymns and  implores  Him  to forgive him; his  sins and vouch safe to him- His grace and Blessings.
Sandhya  Vandanam  is one of the few  remaining links that unite us to a  glorious past. It is  duly rendered imperative by solemn  voice of  Vedic injunction. It is a  distinctive  badge for us.
 P.S.Notes:-
Na  annam  udagam  dhanam   na  thithir  dwadasee  samaha:  Na Gayathrya  paro mantrah:  Na  Mathur  daivadam param.
The  highest  Dhanam  on earth is   Anna  Dhanam.  Similarly   nothing  is more  important than Dwadasee  Thithi,  Gayathri Mantra, and Mother.
Achuta Ananta Govinda Namocharana Bheshajad Nasyanthi Sakala Rogath Sathyam Sathyam Vadamyaham.
Chanting of  Glory of  God is  considered  as medicine for all diseases. Hence  the importance of  achamanam by chanting  the Lord’s name. This  is  called  Nama Trayee Vidhya.
As  we  are  doing  the  Nithya karma  without expecting  any  result in return and  by totally surrendering  to the Lord  and  in  a  samarpana Bhavana  we  invoke  the  Lord  name by chanting  Parameswara    Preethyartham  in the  Sankalpa. 
Gayathri  mantra protects  the person one who sings His Glory. Another version  is  Gayan  Pranan  trayatheethi  Gayathri. i.e.  Mantra  Gayathri protects the   pancha  pranas. It  contain  24  vaidheeka  Chandas. Hence  it  is  called  Gayathri. Each  8  padas  are  taken  from  the   Rik,Yajus and Sama  Veda  respectively in that order. Sarva Veda Saram is  Gayathri Mantra.  Gayathri mantra  is hidden inside  the  Vyakruthees and  Vyakruthees are  hidden inside   Pranava  “OM”. And  that  OM is  Paramatman.
There  are  three  types  of  methods  to do Gayathri Japam.
Vachikam- Upamsu- Manasam.
Chanting  letters and padas clearly  with  swaras like  Udhatham,Anudhatham,swaritam and Prachaya  is called  Vachikam.
Moving  the  lips and  the chanting  can be  heard by only  the  kartha is called  Upamsu.
Reciting in the mind without producing  any  sound  whatsoever is called  Manasam. Maximum result and  effect  can be obtained by this  method.
Sandhya Upasana   is a  sadhana ( spiritual practice)  to bring about the  conjunction  ( Sandhi) of the individual  self  with  the Cosmic Self to realise  the  unity  of both. ( Aham  Brahmasmi)  (  Brahmeva  Sathyam).Sandhya  Vandanam  is  a Yoga  Sadhana for union  of  the  individual  with  Supreme  Reality. Sandhya  Upasana incorporates  the  elements or  features of all the  four main  ingredient   of Yoga, such  as Karma, Bhakthi, Dyana and  Jnana. This  upasana  as such  is devised  to lead  one  to both physical and spiritual advancement.
The Supreme divinity is within oneself. Whatever one intensely thinks or meditate upon that one becomes is the psychological law (Yath Dhyathi Tat Bhavathi)
In  Raksha  Mantra that  comes  in the  end  of  Sandhya  Upasana prayer to the Supreme Lord to bestow  prosperity including  many children, prayer  to remove  the cause  and the  effect of bad dreams, prayer to remove all sins and  to bestow  on us  what is  good  for us are  included.
Present Sandhya   Upasana practices  for  Yajur Vedees  contain the following::- 
1Achamanam  2. Ganapathy  Vandanam  3. Pranayama 4. Sankalpa 5. Jala Prarthana ( selective) 6. Marjanam/Prokshanam 7. Prasanam 8. Punar Marjanam9. Arghya Pradhanam 10. Prayaschitha  Arghyam 11. Atma Pradakshinam12.  Atma Anusandhanam 13. Navagraha/ and  Devatha Tharpanam 14. Brahmarpanam.
Japa parts  consist of  the  following:-
Achamanam 2. Ganapathy Vandanam 3. Sankalpa 4.Pranayamam 4. Gayathri Avahanam 5. Gayathri Japam 6. Gayathri Upasthanam 7. Surya Upasthanam 8. Samasti Abhivadanam 9. Dig Devatha Vandanam 10. Yama Vandanam 11.Harihara Vandanam  12. Suryanarayana  Vandanam 13 Samarpanam 14.  Raksha .


References: Commentary  on Sandhya  vandanam  by   Prof: Sri. Kameswara Iyer- professor of  English  at  Maharaja’s College-Pudukkottai in the year  1898.
Sandhya Vandanam in Malayalam by   Brahmasri P.S.Ramanathan-Disciple of Brahmasri. Sangameswara Sastrigal published in 1985 at Calicut Following Sayana Bashyam. Subham bhavatu.

Wednesday, September 03, 2014

 

VIVEKACHOODAMANI-BY ADI SANKARA

                                                 Sri Mahaganapathye Nama:

Excerpts from Sri Sankara’s Vivekachoodamani - Reference: -   from commentary published by Central Chinmaya Mission.

Vedanta   is truly is science of Life. Sri Adi   Sankara is a great interpreter of Vedanta.  His commentaries  on  Upanishad,  Brahma  Sutra, and  Bhagavat  Geetha  are  the  main  ones.  Vivekachoodamani is also one of the other great texts. The  article  on  Vivekachoodamani  deals with development  of  discrimination  between  the  Real and  the  Unreal.  Vivekachoodamani   means “The crest Jewel of Discrimination.”
In 77 chapters  consisting  of  581 verses- Sri Sankara  has brought  out  the  details  of  how  to  discriminate  the  Real   from  the  unreal.

Durlabam tryametat Devanugraha hethukam- Manushyatwam- Mumukhatwam- Mahapurusha samasrya:

To be  born  as a  human being;  second   to  employ in life  a deep  discriminative  understanding- and  to  perceive  the  ultimate  futility of  all  the  ordinary mundane pursuits  of  life and  thereby  seek  a  nobler  path  of   Self  redemption.  Thirdly to find a right master (guru).

So manhood‘s burning desire for liberation and the capacity to surrender completely to a man of wisdom.   All the above three are very rare. But if found they are due to the Lord’s own Grace.

Amrutatwam -  Immortality -  is  not  a  state  or  condition that  comes to us  after  our  departure  from  this  world.  It is a perfection that can be lived here and now. A state of continuous existence.
Sustained  self- effort  by  yoga  is  required  to elevate the  mind  to rise  from  low  values  of  its present  existence to  a healthier  and  diviner  scheme  of  living.  Understanding   the Real Self is itself the route to Moksha.

Any amount  of  knowledge by  study  of  scriptures  or  invoking  of  God through  various  sacrifices; or  doing elaborate  rituals – yet without  the  experience  of  one’s Identity  with  the  Self ( Atman  and  Self are  one)- there shall  be  no  liberation  for  the  individual.

Selfless  work  and  charitable  acts  help  to  purify the mind  but they  do  not  by  themselves  contribute  to  the  perception of  Reality.  The  discovery  of  the  Self  is  brought  about  only  by  discriminative analysis. Therefore,  a  true  seeker  of  the  Self  should  learn  to  enquire  and  meditate  after  duly  approaching  a  Guru, who is  himself  established  in the  experience  of  the  Self. He  alone  is  considered    qualified to  enquire after  the  Supreme  Reality,  who is   able  to discriminate   ( between  the  Sat  and  Asat);  detachment;  qualities  of   calmness   and  burning  desire  for  liberation.

The required qualification for realisation of   Real Self  are
:
1.    Ability to   discriminate   real from unreal.

2.   Spirit of  detachment  from  the  enjoyment  of the fruits  of actions.( Vairagya  born out  of  Viveka is     called  detachment)

3.    Burning   desire for   liberation.

4.    Six essentials like Dama- Sama- Titiksha-Sradha-Samadhana and Uparathi.

Dama:   -Self-control –control of sense organs
Sama: sama is  condition experienced  by  the mind  when  it  does  not  function  in worldly  activities  but  quietly  settled  upon  the  contemplation of  the  Supreme  Lord- calmness.
Titiksha:- Titiksha  is  forbearance  -That  is  the  capacity  to  endure  all sorrows –sufferings- without  struggling  for  redress  or  revenge and  also  free from anxiety over them.
Shraddha: - Faith in Self, Sastras, and in Reality. Shraddha  is  by  which  one  understands import  of  the  scriptures as well  as   the  pregnant  words  of  advice  of  the  preceptor.
Samadhana:-  Tranquility:-  This  is  that  condition  when the mind  is  constantly  engaged  in  the  total contemplation  of  the  Supreme Reality.  It  is  mental  attitude  of  individual  with  hardened  out-look and  grown  in sensible  - mental  equilibrium.- Contentment  with  what  one has  been  blessed with.
Uparathi: - Mind withdrawn from all objects- emotions- thoughts.

With  above  mentioned  requirements   un alloyed  faith-devotion- and  the  practice  of  meditation are  mentioned  in  the  Sruti as  chief  factors that  helps  a seeker  to  attain liberation.

Anthakarana - Sudhi is the other requirement.  This consists of Manas- Budhi- Ahamkara and Chitha. These four inner equipment’s play through organs of perceptions and actions   make  it  possible  for  a person to come  in contact with  the  world  around  him.

The Supreme Reality- Atman- Self- is said to be covered with five sheaths. i.e.  Food Sheath- Vital Air Sheath- Mental sheath- Intellectual sheath- and Bliss sheath.

They  apparently  cover  the  Atman from direct  vision  and  are born out  of  the  Atman’s own power- divine- called  Maya. When  all the  above  sheaths have been  negated  the Self   can  be  apprehended  as  being  the  essence  of  everlasting  Bliss  - as  the  indwelling- Self  effulgent- Spirit Supreme.
To achieve liberation very well read bookish knowledge in philosophy of Vedanta is not enough. He  has  to  give  up  his  false  identification with  his  body-sense organs etc.- which  are  unreal. Avidhya  or  spiritual ignorance  is  the  cause  of  one’s delusory  identification with  the  matter  and  the  effect of  such identification is  “Bondage”. Mind must be diligently purified by one who seek’s liberation from bondage. Avidhya  ends  only  when  true  wisdom comes  and  then  liberation   of  self  is  possible.
Delusion  or  non-apprehension of  Reality give rise  to  mis- apprehension- that  I am  the  body- I  am  the mind etc. To achieve  realisation one should  be  able  to discriminate  the  Self – The  Real from  the  non-self-  Non real.  Atman itself is the Supreme Brahman and nothing else.  The following   Mahavakyas from the Vedas confirm this statement.  Prakjnanam Brahma- Aham Brahmasmi- Tat Twam Asi- Ayam atma Brahma. It is said that one which illumines everything is your own Self.

Atman –Brahman- Reality- Self-has the following attributes:-

Transcendental (para) 2. Real (Sat) 3. One without second  (adwiteeyam)4.Extremely pure ( Visudham) 5. Absolute –mass of  pure  knowledge . 6. Without any taint (Niranjanam) 7. Supremely peaceful ( Prasantham) 8.  Devoid  of  beginning and  end  ( Aadi  antha Viheenam)  9. Beyond  activity  10.  In nature of eternal Bliss 11. Transcending all diversities created by Maya (Mayaadheetha) 12.  Eternal (Nithyam) 13.  Essence  of  all pleasures  ( sukam) 14. Without any parts   (Nishkalam) 15.  Immeasurable (Aprameyam) 16. Form less (Aroopam) 17. Unmanifest   (Avyaktham) 18.  Nameless 19. Immutable-irreducible (Avyayam) 20. Self-Luminous   (Jyhothiswayam).

It  is  also   fact  that   Brahmam- Atman- The  Truth- is beyond the  triple  factors  of  the  knower, the  knowledge, the  known.  That the same is pure consciousness (Kevalam Akhandam Chinmatram).
To  know the Atman  within  you  one  should  develop  the  study of  scriptures and  feeling  for  God; increased  by  bhakti  or  devotion. Knowledge and devotion are the methods to understand the God’s nature.  Neither  of them  by  itself is  cable  of  realising  the  Truth; because  it is  beyond  the  mind  and  the  intellect. Where the mind  and  the intellect  merge- so  forged is  called  the  heart in all the  spiritual  literature.  Understanding the   Jnana is function of the intellect and   feeling-Bhakti is the function of the mind. Contemplation -Bhavana is the function of the heart.  Constantly  meditate  in the  heart  that  “  I  am  the  Brahman”-  contemplate  steadily  upon  it.  Ultimately  understand  to  apprehend your  inner  most  Self is  Brahman- pure  consciousness-pure  illumination.

Negative  vasanas  which  is  called  sin  or  papa create  agitation in  the  mind. Even good  vasanas  should  be  got  rid  of  to know  the  Brahman- the  Reality-the Truth.  The Body, the Mind, the Intellect are the three cancerous ulcers that put forth the sorrow into life.  When these three are transcended there can be no more agitations or disturbances.

Theoretical book   knowledge is called   Jnanam where as full subjective experience is called direct knowledge Vignanam. The personal experience  of  one’s ability  with  Brahman; the  experience  that  the  Self  in me is  the Self everywhere  is  cause  for  liberation. From the  phenomenon of becoming - The experience  of  the  merger of  the  Life with  the  life universal  alone  can remove the  bondage  of  transmigration. Brahman; the life’s spark in each one of us is one without a second and is of the nature of   all Bliss. Sathyam Jnanam Anantam Brahma.

That which  remains  the same  in  the  three periods  of  time  past present and future is called  Truth- Sathyam  The  consciousness because of which all other knowledge  are  possible is  called   Jnanam. Because it is endless-eternal it is called   Anantam.

Brahman is untouched by six waves of sorrows: They are Hunger-Thirst-Attachment for objects producing sorrows-Delusory fascination for pleasurable objects- Old Age -and Death. That which is not conquered and has no contact with these six waves of sorrows in life is the infinite – consciousness-Brahman-The Reality-The Truth. The Brahman is pure consciousness and is not made of Maya (Nirvikalpam). It is beyond all agitations of mind and intellect which are created by the   Vasanas.

The three stages for Self Realisation are:
1.         Discrimination between the Self and the not-Self.
2.         Subjective experience of the  Self within
3.        Getting established in the oneness of Brahman and
     Atman.


I and mine notion in the body –sense organ etc. are not self. This super imposition with the body must end- by identification of the Real Self within his own self. Blindly following (Anu vartanam) - Like Deha is self- Sastra Anuvartanam etc.  Should end to know the Truth.

The Vasanas of every individual fall under three categories- Tamas-Rajas- Satwa-according to balance of Sanchitha –Prarabdha-Aagami Karmas.  The fruits of our actions linger in us as Vasanas.  Vasanas act through our - doership and enjoyer-ship called Ego. Karta-Bhokta entitity is also the same Ego.
From desire starts attachment- from attachment to anger-from anger delusion- from delusion destruction of discrimination- the end is he perishes.  Saint Narada is his Bhakthi Soothra states that having dedicated all activities to Him one should turn all one’s desire, anger, pride etc. towards Him alone. This is best way to control the mind.  Whenever the seeker feels very lustful or other evil thoughts arise in him-without encouraging such thoughts- maintain the attitude of mear witness towards it. –with full consciousness by chanting God’s names. Vasanas increased by thoughts and action cause transmigration. Vasanas- Chinta- Karma is the three factors which are closely interred connected. With the end of Selfish actions brooding over sense objects ends. This would be followed by destruction of Vasanas.Distruction of the Vasanas is Liberation or Moksha. Santkurmara-Brahma’s son says that the forgetfulness of the essential divinity in us and our sense of holiness is itself is Death (Spiritual death) because thereafter that person can live only as animal.

Non apprehension of the Reality would create mis-apprehension –which is the root cause of all sorrows.  It  happens  in the  following  sequence- From forgetfulness starts delusion – from delusion  ( moha)  comes the Ego-  Ego sense leads to Bondage( Bhanda). Finally bondage breeds misery.

The self-existent Brahman created the senses with outgoing tendencies. Therefore, man beholds the external universe and not internal Self (Atman). Wise man by turning away his senses –and sensual objects-and desirous of immortality sees the “Atman within.” So if the mind ever so slightly strays from the ideal and becomes outgoing; then it goes down and down- just like ball inadvertently dropped on a flight of stairs bounces down from one step to another.

When the objective world is shut out, the mind becomes quiet and in such mind arise the vision of the “PARAMATMAN.”  When that is perfectly realized the chain of births and deaths can be broken. Hence shutting out of the external world is the initial step for reaching Liberation. To recognise the entire universe as the Self is the means of release from all sense of bondage. One realizes this state by excluding the objective world through steady fastness in the external Atman.

As long as the veiling power (Avarana Sakthi) is not completely removed, so long the projecting power (Vikshepa Sakthi) will naturally make the individual dance. As long as there is non-apprehension of the Reality the mis-apprehension will continue; until the Reality- Truth is experienced the Vasanas will remain.

An Aspirant in order to be successful in his meditation should have the following fundamental qualities:-

1.    Serenity (Santha Bhava) His mind is well trained not to run after sense objects with the false notion that    there is happiness in them.

2.    Control of sense  organs

3.    Total withdrawal  from mental pre-occupation

4.     Forbearance.

Such seeker in his meditation realizes ultimately that the one Self is everywhere- nearer to Samadhi state is attained. Once he realizes that self is everywhere the bondage born out of spiritual blindness are all burnt down.  Thereafter he lives ever content and blissful and life himself up to the state of Brahman and verily becomes Brahman.  The first gateway of Yoga consists of control of speech. 2. Non acceptance of possessions. 3. Non entertainment of expectations. 4. Freedom from activity.  5. Living always in retired mood.

It has to be understood that dispassion  ( Vairagya)  and discrimination in an  aspirant are  like the two wings of a bird- unless both are active no one can take  the help of  just one and fly to the  creeper of liberation which grows as it  where at  the top of the building)

Sri Sankara’s saying is  

Brahma Satyam Jagat Mithya Jeevo Brahmmaeva napara:

Brahman alone is real.  The phenomenal world is an illusion- the individual ego is nothing other than Brahman.

The fruit of dispassion is knowledge. That of Knowledge is withdrawal from sense pleasures. Fruit of this withdrawal is the experience of the Blissful Self and peace is result of this experience. Again it is stated that he who has steady wisdom; who experience endless Bliss –who has forgotten the phenomenal world- he is considered as Jeevan Muktha.

All our activities are called Karma. Karma is of three types. It is classified with reference to past present and future.  Accumulated at the unconscious level of the mind are called Sanchitam (acquired). Large number of vasanas within is this karma. Out of which few of them become frutified and surge forth to express. Due to such vasanas we express ourselves the way we do. This is called Prarabdha Karma.  (Which has started yielding fruits?) Some of the vasanas which are awaiting maturity and are yet to become effective are called Aagami. Once realisation is achieved his Sanchitha and Aagami karmas are destroyed. But this body being of  Prarabdha Karma  that which is result of past actions; which have already started yielding fruits; has to continue existence till it exhaust by itself.  This body is the arrow which has already started from the mother’s womb and has been aimed at the tomb.  A journey is from the Womb to Tomb. In that flight has started its career nobody can stop it. All the three karmas leave only when the Ego is completely dead. Vasanas affect Ego. The Ego is liquidated in the transporting experience of the Infinite.

It is said that the highest knowledge arises from the sincere contemplation upon the meaning of the Upanishad mantras. By this knowledge immediately a total annihilation of all sorrows born of “perception of change” take place.  Shraddha-unalloyed faith-devotion and practice of meditation are the four factors mentioned in the Sruti that help a seeker to attain Liberation.

When the sense objects are conducive the situation is happy but when not conducive it is miserable. Hence happiness and misery are the dharmas of the Ego and not related to Atman- which is ever Blissful.  

Invisible with all the three Gunas (Satwa Rajas Tamas) without a beginning is Avidhya- Maya which is power of the Lord. This is different from Prakruthi- Prapancham and superior to their effect. It is the Avidhya which projects the entire Universe.

Desire-anger-greed-hypocrisy-arrogance-jealousy-egoism- envy etc.  are the attributes of Rajas from which the worldly tendencies of  man are produced.  Rajas is therefore, the cause for bondage in life.

The veiling power –Maya- is the power of Tamas-which makes things appear to be other than what they are actually are.  Hence Tamas veils Reality and Rajas create agitation in the mind.  As a combination of these two we see things which are not really   there.

Ignorance, Laziness, dullness, sleep, inadvertence, stupidity etc.  are the attributes of   Tamo  Guna.
Pure Satwa is like clear water. – The light of self-get reflected in Satwa alone like the sun it reveals the entire world of matter. Cheerfulness, the experience of one’s own self.  Supreme peace, contentment, Bliss, supreme devotion to the Supreme Self are the attributes of Satwa Guna.

He who has deep devotion to the Sruti and who is established in his Swadharma is able to attain purity of   his mind. With pure mind realizes the Supreme Self. By this knowledge alone is samsara is destroyed root and branch. The Atman is to the extent the mind becomes steadily established in the subjective   Self; to that extent it leaves its desires for the objects of the world. When all such desires completely end then there is the clear unimpeached realisation of the Self. Thus purified by constant practice when the mind merges with Brahman; then Samadhi passes from the   savi Kalpa to Nirvi Kalpa stage- leading directly to the experience of the Bliss of Brahman- the Non Dual. Therefore, with serene mind- the sense controlled-ever-drowning the mind in the subjective Supreme Self; and by realising your identity with the Reality-destroy the darkness created by the beginning –less nescience (Avidhya).

Living in solitude helps to control the sense organs. Control of senses serves to control the mind and by controlling the mind the Ego is destroyed. This gives the person an absolute Realisation of the Bliss of Brahman.

A  person with the  following  qualifications    are eligible  to   attain  the Bliss and would be  able  to  know  the Reality-Truth-  the Brahman.

1.    Those who have completely purged of all impurities of mind by  following  prescribed methods like Sama, Dama, Uparathi, Titiksha, Shraddha and Samadhana.
2.   Those who are averse to the pleasures of the world which are ever changing.
3.    Those who minds are quiet calm because of the reduction of vasanas.
4.    Those who take delight in the study of the scriptures
5.    Those who are putting forth the efforts and are striving to realise what they have understood.
Those who have a burning desire for liberation- M

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